Hereditary diseases or conditions with increased risk of thromboembolic complications are summarized on this page, which includes venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In rare cases of atrial septal abnormalities, paradoxical embolism may occur, which results in cerebral emboli.
Among cardiovascular diseases, thromboembolic diseases are the third most common. The incidence is 0,1% per year.
Thromboembolic diseases exemplify the interplay of inherited and acquired conditions. Acquired risk factors include advanced age, prolonged immobilization, surgery, fractures, oral contraceptives and other forms of hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy und delivery, malignancies, infectious diseases, and antiphospholipid syndrome. More than half of patients with thromboembolic diseases also possess genetic risk factors. This rate is exceptionally height in cases younger than 45 years and thrombosis at atypical sites. All conditions with increased risk for thromboembolic disease are called thrombophilia or hypercoagulability.
Thomas RH et al. (2001) Hypercoagulability syndromes.[^]
Franco RF et al. (2001) Genetic risk factors of venous thrombosis.[^]