Laboratory for Molecular Diagnostics
Center for Nephrology and Metabolic Disorders

Complement component C4 deficiency

Complement component C4 deficiency is characterized by low plasma complement C4 levels and the ensuing dysfunction of the complement-dependent immune defense system. The disorder is caused either by impaired production or enhance degradation of the complement component C4.

Systematic

Hereditary complement disorders
CR1 deficiency
Complement C2 deficiency
Complement C3 deficiency
Complement C5 deficiency
Complement C6 deficiency
Complement C7 deficiency
Complement C8 deficiency
Complement C9 deficiency
Complement component C4 deficiency
Complement component C4A deficiency
C4A
Complement component C4B deficiency
C4B
Partial complement component C4 deficiency
SERPING1
Complement factor D deficiency
Complement factor I deficiency
Early pathway complement deficiencies
Hereditary Angioedema
Properdin deficiency, X-linked
Terminal pathway complement deficiencies
Thrombotic microangiopathies

References:

1.

Yang Y et al. (2007) Gene copy-number variation and associated polymorphisms of complement component C4 in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): low copy number is a risk factor for and high copy number is a protective factor against SLE susceptibility in European Americans.

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2.

Boteva L et al. (2012) Genetically determined partial complement C4 deficiency states are not independent risk factors for SLE in UK and Spanish populations.

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3.

O'Neill GJ et al. (1978) Two HLA-linked loci controlling the fourth component of human complement.

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4.

Teisberg P et al. (1976) Genetic polymorphism of C4 in man and localisation of a structural C4 locus to the HLA gene complex of chromosome 6.

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5.

None (1991) The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. DNA sequences, polymorphism, and linkage to the 21-hydroxylase gene.

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6.

Braun L et al. (1990) Null alleles of human complement C4. Evidence for pseudogenes at the C4A locus and for gene conversion at the C4B locus.

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7.

Welch TR et al. (1990) Uniparental isodisomy 6 associated with deficiency of the fourth component of complement.

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8.

Carroll MC et al. (1990) Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A.

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9.

Yu CY et al. (1986) Structural basis of the polymorphism of human complement components C4A and C4B: gene size, reactivity and antigenicity.

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10.

Partanen J et al. (1989) Determination of deletion sizes in the MHC-linked complement C4 and steroid 21-hydroxylase genes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

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11.

Palsdottir A et al. (1987) Heterogeneity of human C4 gene size. A large intron (6.5 kb) is present in all C4A genes and some C4B genes.

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12.

Prentice HL et al. (1986) C4B gene polymorphism detected in a human cosmid clone.

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13.

Schneider PM et al. (1986) Polymorphism of the human complement C4 and steroid 21-hydroxylase genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealing structural deletions, homoduplications, and size variants.

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14.

Partanen J et al. (1988) C4 null phenotypes among lupus erythematosus patients are predominantly the result of deletions covering C4 and closely linked 21-hydroxylase A genes.

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15.

Carroll MC et al. (1987) Polymorphism and molecular genetics of human C4.

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16.

Mascart-Lemone F et al. (1983) Genetic deficiency of C4 presenting with recurrent infections and a SLE-like disease. Genetic and immunologic studies.

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17.

Awdeh ZL et al. (1980) Inherited structural polymorphism of the fourth component of human complement.

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18.

Awdeh ZL et al. (1981) Genetic analysis of C4 deficiency.

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19.

Barba G et al. (1993) Genetic basis of human complement C4A deficiency. Detection of a point mutation leading to nonexpression.

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20.

Suto Y et al. (1996) Visual demonstration of the organization of the human complement C4 and 21-hydroxylase genes by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization.

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21.

Schneider PM et al. (2001) The endogenous retroviral insertion in the human complement C4 gene modulates the expression of homologous genes by antisense inhibition.

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22.

Chung EK et al. (2002) Determining the one, two, three, or four long and short loci of human complement C4 in a major histocompatibility complex haplotype encoding C4A or C4B proteins.

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23.

Chung EK et al. (2002) Genetic sophistication of human complement components C4A and C4B and RP-C4-CYP21-TNX (RCCX) modules in the major histocompatibility complex.

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24.

Meo T et al. (1975) Immunochemical characterization of murine H-2 controlled Ss (serum substance) protein through identification of its human homologue as the fourth component of complement.

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25.

O'Neill GJ et al. (1978) Chido and Rodgers blood groups are distinct antigenic components of human complement C4.

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26.

Ochs HD et al. (1977) Linkage between the gene (or genes) controlling synthesis of the fourth component of complement and the major histocompatibility complex.

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27.

Hall RE et al. (1977) Cell-free synthesis of the fourth component of guinea pig complement (C4): identification of a precursor of serum C4 (pro-C4).

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28.

Cunningham-Rundles C et al. (1977) Are HLA and Chido related antigenic groups?

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29.

Cunningham-Rundles C et al. (1977) Chemical studies on the Chido antigen.

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30.

Olaisen B et al. (1979) Human complement C4 locus is duplicated on some chromosomes.

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31.

Cream JJ et al. (1979) Genetic basis of acquired C4 deficiency.

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32.

Petersen GB et al. (1979) Genetic studies of complement C4 in man.

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33.

Brade V et al. (1977) Biosynthesis of pro-C3, a precursor of the third component of complement.

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34.

Porter RR et al. (1978) The biochemistry of complement.

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35.

O'Neill GJ et al. (1978) Chido and Rodgers blood groups: relationship to C4 and HLA.

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36.

None (1976) The S region of the mouse major histocompatibility complex (H-2): genetic variation and functional role in complement system.

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37.

Hobart MJ et al. (1976) Allotypes of complement components in man.

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38.

Krönke M et al. (1977) Linkage of guinea pig Bf and C4 TO THE GPLA.

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39.

Schaller JG et al. () Severe systemic lupus erythematosus with nephritis in a boy with deficiency of the fourth component of complement.

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40.

Lachmann PJ et al. (1975) Identification of Ss protein as murine C4.

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41.

Curman B et al. (1975) H-2 linked Ss protein is C4 component of complement.

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42.

Fasano MB et al. (1992) A unique recombination event resulting in a C4A*Q0,C4B*Q0 double null haplotype.

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43.

Kramer J et al. (1991) A marked drop in the incidence of the null allele of the B gene of the fourth component of complement (C4B*Q0) in elderly subjects: C4B*Q0 as a probable negative selection factor for survival.

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44.

Eikelenboom P et al. (1988) Complement C4 phenotypes in dementia of the Alzheimer type.

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45.

Welch TR et al. (1985) C4 uremic variant: an acquired C4 allotype.

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46.

Whitehead AS et al. (1985) Localization of the human MHC-linked complement genes between HLA-B and HLA-DR by using HLA mutant cell lines.

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47.

Ellman L et al. (1970) Genetically controlled total deficiency of the fourth component of complement in the guinea pig.

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48.

Rosenfeld SI et al. (1969) Structural polymorphism of the fourth component of human complement.

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49.

Wank R et al. (1984) Rare variant of complement C4 is seen in high frequency in patients with primary glomerulonephritis.

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50.

Fontaine M et al. (1980) A common antigenic determinant on human C4b and C3b.

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51.

Roos MH et al. (1982) A molecular basis for the two locus model of human complement component C4.

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52.

Nerl C et al. (1984) HLA-linked complement markers in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease: C4 variant (C4B2) a possible marker for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type.

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53.

Carroll MC et al. () A molecular map of the human major histocompatibility complex class III region linking complement genes C4, C2 and factor B.

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54.

Carroll MC et al. (1983) Cloning of a human complement component C4 gene.

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55.

Chan AC et al. (1983) Identification and partial characterization of the secreted form of the fourth component of human complement: evidence that it is different from major plasma form.

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56.

None (1984) A new genetic variant for Chido.

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57.

Rittner C et al. (1981) On the significance of C2, C4, and factor B polymorphisms in disease.

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58.

Pollack MS et al. (1980) HLA typing of cultured amniotic cells for the prenatal diagnosis of complement C4 deficiency.

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59.

Lhotta K et al. (1996) Complement C4 phenotypes in patients with end-stage renal disease.

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60.

Szalai C et al. (2002) Association of polymorphisms and allelic combinations in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha-complement MHC region with coronary artery disease.

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61.

Hall RE et al. (1978) Genetic defect in biosynthesis of the precursor form of the fourth component of complement.

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62.

Yammani RD et al. (2014) C4 Deficiency is a predisposing factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced autoantibody production.

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Update: April 29, 2019