Vesicoureteral reflux is an urogenital malformation characterized by retrograde urine flow from bladder into the ureters/kidneys.
Gbadegesin RA et. al. (2013) TNXB mutations can cause vesicoureteral reflux.[^]
Lu W et. al. (2007) Disruption of ROBO2 is associated with urinary tract anomalies and confers risk of vesicoureteral reflux.[^]
Gimelli S et. al. (2010) Mutations in SOX17 are associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract.[^]