Laboratory for Molecular Diagnostics
Center for Nephrology and Metabolic Disorders

Appetite-regulating hormone

The GHRL encodes proteins that is cleaved into two peptide hormones, ghrelin and obestatin, which are involved in the regulation of appetite and energy consumption and balance. Mutations can cause obesity wich follows a dominant model. Also synergistic effects with mutations in other genes have to be taken into account.

Genetests:

Clinic Method Carrier testing
Turnaround 5
Specimen type genomic DNA
Research Method Genomic sequencing of the entire coding region
Turnaround 25
Specimen type genomic DNA
Clinic Method Massive parallel sequencing
Turnaround 25
Specimen type genomic DNA

Related Diseases:

Susceptibility to obesity
ADRB2
ADRB3
CARTPT
ENPP1
GHRL
PPARGC1B
SDC3
UCP1

References:

1.

Dixit VD et al. (2004) Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells.

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2.

Zigman JM et al. (2005) Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity.

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3.

Andrews ZB et. al. (2008) UCP2 mediates ghrelin's action on NPY/AgRP neurons by lowering free radicals.

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4.

Kojima M et. al. (1999) Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.

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5.

Tschöp M et. al. (2000) Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.

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6.

Date Y et. al. (2000) Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans.

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7.

Takaya K et. al. (2000) Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone release in humans.

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8.

Date Y et. al. (2001) Ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to stimulate gastric acid secretion.

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9.

Nakazato M et. al. (2001) A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.

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10.

Kojima M et. al. (2001) Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor.

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11.

Ukkola O et. al. (2001) Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans.

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12.

Tanaka M et. al. (2001) Testis-specific and developmentally induced expression of a ghrelin gene-derived transcript that encodes a novel polypeptide in the mouse.

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13.

Cummings DE et. al. (2002) Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery.

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14.

Hinney A et. al. (2002) Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.

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15.

Korbonits M et. al. (2002) A variation in the ghrelin gene increases weight and decreases insulin secretion in tall, obese children.

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16.

DelParigi A et. al. (2002) High circulating ghrelin: a potential cause for hyperphagia and obesity in prader-willi syndrome.

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17.

Haqq AM et. al. (2003) Serum ghrelin levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, age, and insulin concentrations in normal children and are markedly increased in Prader-Willi syndrome.

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18.

Cowley MA et. al. (2003) The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis.

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19.

Corbetta S et. al. (2003) Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma.

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20.

Popovic V et. al. (2003) Ghrelin main action on the regulation of growth hormone release is exerted at hypothalamic level.

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21.

Pagotto U et. al. (2003) Testosterone replacement therapy restores normal ghrelin in hypogonadal men.

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22.

Leonetti F et. al. (2003) Different plasma ghrelin levels after laparoscopic gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding in morbid obese subjects.

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23.

Farquhar J et. al. (2003) Elevated umbilical cord ghrelin concentrations in small for gestational age neonates.

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24.

Wortley KE et. al. (2004) Genetic deletion of ghrelin does not decrease food intake but influences metabolic fuel preference.

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25.

Leidy HJ et. al. (2004) Circulating ghrelin is sensitive to changes in body weight during a diet and exercise program in normal-weight young women.

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26.

Steinle NI et. al. (2005) Variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Old Order Amish.

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27.

Zhang JV et. al. (2005) Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.

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28.

Wortley KE et. al. (2005) Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity.

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29.

Doi A et. al. (2006) IA-2beta, but not IA-2, is induced by ghrelin and inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

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30.

Theander-Carrillo C et. al. (2006) Ghrelin action in the brain controls adipocyte metabolism.

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31.

Abizaid A et. al. (2006) Ghrelin modulates the activity and synaptic input organization of midbrain dopamine neurons while promoting appetite.

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32.

Chartrel N et. al. (2007) Comment on "Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake".

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33.

Kluge M et. al. (2007) Ghrelin suppresses secretion of luteinizing hormone in humans.

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34.

Checchi S et. al. (2007) Serum ghrelin as a marker of atrophic body gastritis in patients with parietal cell antibodies.

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35.

Dixit VD et. al. (2007) Ghrelin promotes thymopoiesis during aging.

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36.

Yang J et. al. (2008) Identification of the acyltransferase that octanoylates ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide hormone.

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37.

Feigerlová E et. al. (2008) Hyperghrelinemia precedes obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome.

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38.

Kirchner H et. al. (2009) GOAT links dietary lipids with the endocrine control of energy balance.

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39.

Jerlhag E et. al. (2009) Requirement of central ghrelin signaling for alcohol reward.

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Update: Sept. 26, 2018