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Apolipoprotein D

The APOD gene encodes a glycoprotein of the lipocalin family, apolipoprotein D. Unlike other apolipoproteins, it is widely expressed in various tissues, predominantly brain and testes. Apolipoprotein D deficiency is not a known human disorder, but we know from various animal experiments that a knockout of this protein leads to symptoms resembling metabolic syndrome while over expression extends life span. Various polymorphisms seems to be associated with Alzheimer disease.

Gene Structure

The APOD gene is located on chromosom 3 (3q29). It includes 5 exons of which exons 2-5 are coding. In the promotor several steroid response elements are characterized.

Protein Structure

Apolipoprotein D is small (18kD) and has no similarity to other apolipoproteins. It belongs to the lipocalin family. These are proteins that form a hydrophobic pocketfor a single ligand. Apart from this hydrophobic pocket, several hydrophobic regions are located outside that allow the protein to be achored to cell membranes and HDL lipoprotein particles.


Research Method Carrier testing
Turnaround 5 days
Specimen type genomic DNA
Clinic Method Massive parallel sequencing
Turnaround 25 days
Specimen type genomic DNA
Research Method Genomic sequencing of the entire coding region
Turnaround 25 days
Specimen type genomic DNA

Related Diseases:



Chen Y et al. (2008) Association between polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein D gene and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

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Zeng C et al. (1996) A human axillary odorant is carried by apolipoprotein D.

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Quadagno DM et al. (1981) Influence of male social contacts, exercise and all-female living conditions on the menstrual cycle.

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Graham CA et al. (1980) Menstrual synchrony in female undergraduates living on a coeducational campus.

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Fielding PE et al. (1980) A cholesteryl ester transfer complex in human plasma.

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None (1978) Estrous synchrony and its mediation by airborne chemical communication (Rattus norvegicus).

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None (1971) Menstrual synchorony and suppression.

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Drayna D et al. (1986) Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA.

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Drayna D et al. (1987) Multiple RFLPs at the human apolipoprotein D (APOD) locus.

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Kamboh MI et al. (1989) Genetic studies of human apolipoproteins. IX. Apolipoprotein D polymorphism and its relation to serum lipoprotein lipid levels.

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Drayna DT et al. (1987) Human apolipoprotein D gene: gene sequence, chromosome localization, and homology to the alpha 2u-globulin superfamily.

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Shibata N et al. (2013) Genetic association between APOA1 and APOD polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese population.

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Muffat J et al. (2010) Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age-related diseases.

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Warden CH et al. (1992) Localization of the gene for apolipoprotein D on mouse chromosome 16.

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NCBI article

NCBI 347 external link

OMIM.ORG article

Omim 107740 external link

Wikipedia article

Wikipedia EN (Apolipoprotein_D) external link
Update: Aug. 14, 2020
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